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Bad SQL being sent to it, very high server load (especially if RAM runs out and you're eating into swap, and even more especially if swap fills and the kernel starts killing stuff, like mysqld), faulty hardware (in order of responsibility for mysql problems: RAM, hard drive, everything else).
1. incorrect shutdown (which can be caused by power failure, killing the process, ram exhaustion, hitting a mysql bug that crashes the process, etc.)
2. hardware failure (disk errors, ram parity errors, cpu errors)
3. disk full.
4. mysql bug in the code that writes to the table.
I'm surprised so many say "server load". How does that crash tables without it being one of the other issues such as RAM exhaustion occurring while under heavy load? Similarly for badly written SQL/bad index design - you can corrupt that data within the table that way, and it can contribute to resource usage which then causes on of the other problems, but I can't see how a bad query can actually crash a table unless it hits a mysql bug, which isn't really the fault of the SQL.
1) What is the Mysql version in the server?
2) Is it Mysql 5.x?
3) Does the table stem from versions < 4.1?
4) Do you have characters < blank in your columns?
5) Do you run heavy concurrency (multiple connections) with high load?
6) What is the error message you get?
7) How do your insert, update, delete statements look like?
8) What is the result of SHOW CREATE TABLE?