I think this could be fixed (without an OS reload), especially if you had a backup, but it would be a lot of work.
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Holy crap, your joking right? You didnt really do this did you?? If you have no other options available to you, immediately do
chmod -R 755 /
Then you need to go thru and try to determine correct permissions for things that need to be 444, 644, 777, etc. 755 for everything isnt perfect and certainly isnt best, but it's hella safer than 777 on everything, and should allow most everything to continue operating while you go thru and repair your permissions. Doing 755 will keep you a bit safer. You posted this on a public forum, and pretty soon scriptkiddies will learn of an easy server to hack and will be trying to hack your machine, and then you WILL need a complete format and OS reinstall if they succeed.
It's not actually unreasonable to think someone might have a database or hard coded script that could restore the permissions on the system files and common file names, but I'm not aware of any such thing that exists, if it does. There are bound to be odd files or unexpected files, as no two servers are alike. How long did the original recursive command run for until you broke out of that command? Did you run the second one you asked about and if so, for how long? Did you let either finish? Or is the system still in the original state from the chmod 644 -R /? Again, did you notice the mistake and break out of it, or did it complete?
I cant talk much. Back when I started years ago I thought I could simply mv partitions (didnt know anything)..... didnt work out so well. I probably set the record on crashes due to stupidity. But hey, I pretty much know everything there is to know about what NOT to do,
I'm probably the leading expert on it