I allready know most of HTML but the HTML book is mostly just a refresher. If there's a company that does all books, that'd be best because it's easier to understand. I prefer books that explain to you, and show you how to do things.
I am not looking for the quickest or easiest book to learn these from but one that will teach me it well, if I study it, almost like taking a class, so that I can use it and do work with it.
My best suggestion is to get a free account at the safari bookshelf, and check out some books on the subjects above. This will give you a good idea on the scope of books out there.
I'm not a big fan of computer books (since by the time they are published, most are already out of date -- especially for things such as PHP). However, Wrox and O'Reilly are good publishers when it comes to computer books.
The so-called "camel book" is what is mentioned when anyone asks for a good Perl reference, and its by O'Reilly.
For PHP, I have a few suggestions. Most people recommend the "Programming PHP & MySQL" book. There is also Professional PHP by Wrox publishing.
My favorite Java learning book is by Dietel & Dietel (they also publish some computer science textbooks).
I really don't own any books on CSS or CGI, so I can't recommend any in those domains.
In order to understand recursion, one must first understand recursion.
If you feel like it, you can read my blog
Signal > Noise
As far as advanced HTML and CSS go, all the best stuff you will find on the internet, not in a book. PHP can be learned quite easily by following the manual on www.php.net. I would recommend buying a book to learn java, and make sure you get one which discusses good object oriented design. You would probably want to buy a book on MySQL too if you are going to be doing really advanced SQL, otherwise just search the web and use mysql.com
The web is an indespensable resource when it comes to learning programming languages, however, a great book that is straight to the point with good examples can also be very helpful. This also comes down to preference as well... do you like flipping google pages or flipping pages in a book...
I can't answer for all of the languages but for PHP I would recommend:
The PHP Bible
The MySQL Reference Manual
For Perl: ( O'Reilly Books )
The Perl Cookbook
Programming the Perl DBI
Also, one of the most valuable resources ( if you code in Windows ) is the Windows PHP CHM Help File. It comes with a lot of example code and comments from other users. You can download it from the PHP web site Downloads page. Its on the left column and its called Documentation downloads.