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  1. #1
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    Thumbs up How-To: Web Server Optimization Guide

    Hello,
    I am sure that all web hosts would like to lower the CPU load of their servers, shorten page load times, and boost overall performance. Whether it be to increase profit margin by packing in more customers or to get a Celeron 1.7Ghz handle a popular forum, we can all benefit from server optimization. Below is a compilation of some methods one may use to optimize a web server to serve web pages faster and lower the overall CPU load on the box. The following are some of the best procedures a web host can do to optimize his or her web server.

    1. Basic Config File Editing

    Make a backup of your /etc/my.cnf file, and then perform the following via SSH:

    pico /etc/my.cnf
    Add in the following entries or replace the current existing ones:

    [mysqld]
    datadir=/var/lib/mysql
    socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
    skip-locking
    skip-innodb
    query_cache_limit=8M
    query_cache_size=256M
    query_cache_type=1
    max_connections=500
    max_user_connections=10
    interactive_timeout=20
    wait_timeout=20
    connect_timeout=6
    thread_cache_size=128
    key_buffer=16M
    join_buffer=1M
    max_allowed_packet=16M
    table_cache=1024
    record_buffer=1M
    sort_buffer_size=2M
    read_buffer_size=2M
    max_connect_errors=10
    # Try number of CPU's*2 for thread_concurrency
    thread_concurrency=4
    myisam_sort_buffer_size=64M
    #log-bin
    server-id=1

    [mysql.server]
    user=mysql
    basedir=/var/lib

    [safe_mysqld]
    err-log=/var/log/mysqld.log
    pid-file=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.pid
    open_files_limit=8192

    [mysqldump]
    quick
    max_allowed_packet=16M

    [mysql]
    no-auto-rehash
    #safe-updates

    [isamchk]
    key_buffer=32M
    sort_buffer=32M
    read_buffer=16M
    write_buffer=16M

    [myisamchk]
    key_buffer=32M
    sort_buffer=32M
    read_buffer=16M
    write_buffer=16M

    Hit CTRL + X to exit and save the file

    Now to edit the httpd.conf:

    pico /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf (or wherever your httpd.conf is located)

    Set "Timeout" value to "Timeout 300"
    Change "KeepAlive on" to "KeepAlive off"
    Set "MinSpareServers" to "MinSpareServers 8"
    Set "MaxSpareServers" to "MaxSpareServers 13"
    Set "MaxRequestsPerChild" to "MaxRequestsPerChild 50"
    Set "HostnameLookups" to "HostnameLookups Off"

    CTRL + X to exit and save the file

    Restart Apache and MySQL with:
    service httpd restart
    service mysql restart OR service mysqld restart

    Some people may need to restart the services with /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart and /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql restart

    The above changes can be altered and played around with to suit your server's needs (i.e. if your server is fast or not).

    2. Installing Mod_Perl

    Mod_Perl description: "mod_perl gives you a persistent Perl interpreter embedded in your web server. This lets you avoid the overhead of starting an external interpreter and avoids the penalty of Perl start-up time, giving you super-fast dynamic content. "

    Run these commands via SSH:

    wget http://perl.apache.org/dist/mod_perl-1.0-current.tar.gz

    tar zxvf tar zxvf mod_perl-1.0-current.tar.gz

    cd mod_perl-1.29 (or whatever folder is generated)

    perl Makefile.PL

    If you see any errors about missing dependencies (such as CGI.pm, LWP::UserAgent & HTML::HeadParser required by mod_perl) you may install them with:

    perl -MCPAN -e shell
    install HTML::HeadParser

    If you had to install any dependencies you must re-run "perl Makefile.PL". Back to setting up mod_perl, after perl Makefile.PL run:

    make
    make install

    Congratulations, you've just installed mod_perl. Restart Apache with:

    service httpd restart
    OR
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart


    3. Install Turck MMCache for PHP

    Description: "Turck MMCache is a free open source PHP accelerator, optimizer, encoder and dynamic content cache for PHP. It increases performance of PHP scripts by caching them in compiled state, so that the overhead of compiling is almost completely eliminated. Also it uses some optimizations to speed up execution of PHP scripts. Turck MMCache typically reduces server load and increases the speed of your PHP code by 1-10 times. "

    Turck MMCache requires: apache 1.3, mod_php 4.1, autoconf, automake, libtool, m4. You should already have most of these on your server if not use the "apt-get install <dependency here>" command to get them installed. I won't go into detail about this here, you should easily be able to search the net to get them installed.

    To install Turck MMCache, perform the following commands via SSH:

    wget http://aleron.dl.sourceforge.net/sou...e-2.4.6.tar.gz

    export PHP_PREFIX="/usr"

    $PHP_PREFIX/bin/phpize

    ./configure --enable-mmcache=shared --with-php-config=$PHP_PREFIX/bin/php-config

    (You must specify the real prefix where PHP is installed in the "export" command. It may be "/usr" "/usr/local", or something else.)

    make

    make install

    Turck MMCache can be installed both as Zend or PHP extension, so you need to edit your php.ini file (usually /etc/php.ini).
    To install as Zend extension:

    zend_extension="/usr/lib/php4/mmcache.so"
    mmcache.shm_size="16"
    mmcache.cache_dir="/tmp/mmcache"
    mmcache.enable="1"
    mmcache.optimizer="1"
    mmcache.check_mtime="1"
    mmcache.debug="0"
    mmcache.filter=""
    mmcache.shm_max="0"
    mmcache.shm_ttl="0"
    mmcache.shm_prune_period="0"
    mmcache.shm_only="0"
    mmcache.compress="1"

    To install as PHP extension:

    extension="mmcache.so"
    mmcache.shm_size="16"
    mmcache.cache_dir="/tmp/mmcache"
    mmcache.enable="1"
    mmcache.optimizer="1"
    mmcache.check_mtime="1"
    mmcache.debug="0"
    mmcache.filter=""
    mmcache.shm_max="0"
    mmcache.shm_ttl="0"
    mmcache.shm_prune_period="0"
    mmcache.shm_only="0"
    mmcache.compress="1"

    You may need to copy the mmcache.so file to the directory specified to the above paths in the configuration entries.

    Create the cache directory:
    mkdir /tmp/mmcache
    chmod 0777 /tmp/mmcache

    Restart Apache with:

    service httpd restart
    OR
    /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart


    4. Tuning sysctl.conf

    The sysctl.conf of a server is something that is seldom optimized for performance. You can get a tremendous boost in throughput by adjusting these settings. This configuration has been written by Steve from Rack911. I have applied this configuration to servers ranging from Celeron 1.7Ghz to Dual Xeon 2.8Ghz servers, and on the whole, the load on each lowered after making the changes.

    First make a backup of your old /etc/sysctl.conf file by running the following command, logged in as root:

    cp /etc/sysctl.conf /etc/sysctl.conf.bak

    Now enter:
    pico /etc/sysctl.conf

    and replace the contents of the file with the following:


    # Kernel sysctl configuration file for Red Hat Linux
    #
    # For binary values, 0 is disabled, 1 is enabled. See sysctl(8) and
    # sysctl.conf(5) for more details.

    # Disables packet forwarding
    net.ipv4.ip_forward=0

    # Disables IP source routing
    net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_source_route = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_source_route = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

    # Enable IP spoofing protection, turn on source route verification
    net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

    # Disable ICMP Redirect Acceptance
    net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_redirects = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_redirects = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

    # Enable Log Spoofed Packets, Source Routed Packets, Redirect Packets
    net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.log_martians = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.log_martians = 0

    # Disables IP source routing
    net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_source_route = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_source_route = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0

    # Enable IP spoofing protection, turn on source route verification
    net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1

    # Disable ICMP Redirect Acceptance
    net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.lo.accept_redirects = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.eth0.accept_redirects = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0

    # Disables the magic-sysrq key
    kernel.sysrq = 0

    # Decrease the time default value for tcp_fin_timeout connection
    net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 15

    # Decrease the time default value for tcp_keepalive_time connection
    net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 1800

    # Turn off the tcp_window_scaling
    net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 0

    # Turn off the tcp_sack
    net.ipv4.tcp_sack = 0

    # Turn off the tcp_timestamps
    net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0

    # Enable TCP SYN Cookie Protection
    net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1

    # Enable ignoring broadcasts request
    net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1

    # Enable bad error message Protection
    net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1

    # Log Spoofed Packets, Source Routed Packets, Redirect Packets
    net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1

    # Increases the size of the socket queue (effectively, q0).
    net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 1024

    # Increase the tcp-time-wait buckets pool size
    net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 1440000

    # Allowed local port range
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 16384 65536

    CTRL + X to exit and save the file

    To make your changes take effect immediately, type this command:
    /sbin/sysctl -p

    You can watch your server load by entering "uptime" command via SSH.

    There you have it, a quick few things you can do to your server to boost performance and lower CPU load. Please feel free to post any comments or suggestions.
    Last edited by SoftWareRevue; 03-08-2006 at 05:54 PM. Reason: Updating

  2. #2

    Re: How-To: Web Server Optimization Guide

    Originally posted by IncognitoNet
    Change "KeepAlive on" to "KeepAlive off"
    Set "MinSpareServers" to "MinSpareServers 8"
    Set "MaxSpareServers" to "MaxSpareServers 13"
    Set "MaxRequestsPerChild" to "MaxRequestsPerChild 50"
    [/B]
    This is in prefork.c or worker.c ? How about MaxClients? Ant why MaxRequestsPerChild 50 not 0 ?

  3. #3
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    Hello,
    Those entries aren't for prefork.c or worker.c I saw your other thread, and I can suggest that you use Apache 1.3.* series rather than the Apache 2.* series. You'll lower CPU usage in that switch alone.

    MaxClients you can generally keep to the default; 250 is a good number for most servers, but you may need to adjust depending on your server's hardware specs. I keep MaxRequestsPerChild set to 50 or a little bit higher if your server is faster to keep Apache rotating through child processes and not causing any memory problems that can come from prolonged use of one child process. Overall, it helps out with server load.
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  4. #4
    I use Apache 2.x and PLESK. What could you suggest for me?

  5. #5
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    I assume that you're using this server for web hosting company; switch over your Apache version from the 2.* series to the 1.3.* series. The 1.3.* series is more stable, secure and process efficient.
    ‹‹SHAW NETWORKS›› Simple. Professional. Reliable. Web Hosting Done Right.
    Low Cost & Award-Winning: cPanel Reseller Plans ›› 24/7/365 Live Technical Support ‹‹
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    Sick of downtime? Fed up with excuses? Drop your host! Switch to Shaw Networks.

  6. #6
    But why PLESK recommend Apache 2.0.x ?

  7. #7
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    Perhaps PLESK is reccomending it because Apache 2.0.* offers more features, but our firm does not use PLESK so I cannot comment on exactly why.
    ‹‹SHAW NETWORKS›› Simple. Professional. Reliable. Web Hosting Done Right.
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    Sick of downtime? Fed up with excuses? Drop your host! Switch to Shaw Networks.

  8. #8
    So.. you couldn't suggest me about this? I don't know about this too, and don't know how to optimize

  9. #9
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    Plesk uses 2.x because it uses the stock rpms from redhat. From reading your posts idontknow, you need to learn more. You have very little systemadmin skills and thats not good....
    Steven Ciaburri | Proactive Linux Server Management - Rack911.com
    System Administration Extraordinaire | Follow us on twitter:@Rack911Labs
    Managed Servers (AS62710), Server Management, and Security Auditing.
    www.HostingSecList.com - Security notices for the hosting community.

  10. #10
    There's no to learn from, in plesk forums, WHT, ev1 forums etc. I found nothing about this..

  11. #11
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    Theres alot to use to learn. The best way to learn is by experiementing.
    Steven Ciaburri | Proactive Linux Server Management - Rack911.com
    System Administration Extraordinaire | Follow us on twitter:@Rack911Labs
    Managed Servers (AS62710), Server Management, and Security Auditing.
    www.HostingSecList.com - Security notices for the hosting community.

  12. #12
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    Any comments or suggestions for the guide?
    ‹‹SHAW NETWORKS›› Simple. Professional. Reliable. Web Hosting Done Right.
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    Sick of downtime? Fed up with excuses? Drop your host! Switch to Shaw Networks.

  13. #13
    Originally posted by IncognitoNet
    Any comments or suggestions for the guide?
    on MMcache, you just need to be careful when you upgrade Apache you will need to comment out mmcache from the php.ini and then you will be able to get Apache to load up again. Then recompile MMcache again.

    Please let me know if I am wrong in any of this. I am doing it off of memory from a problem I had a while back.

  14. #14
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    Thats true rasputiinj
    Steven Ciaburri | Proactive Linux Server Management - Rack911.com
    System Administration Extraordinaire | Follow us on twitter:@Rack911Labs
    Managed Servers (AS62710), Server Management, and Security Auditing.
    www.HostingSecList.com - Security notices for the hosting community.

  15. #15
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    Why are you turning KeepAlive off? In Apache's own documentation they say that KeepAlive can help increase the speed up to 50%.
    CitrusDB Open Source Customer Care & Billing Software
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  16. #16
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    How can you test to see if Turck MMCache for PHP is running on your server?

    I know i installed it, but i want to make sure its still functioning like its suppose too.

  17. #17
    Great guide... adding this to my new server setup documentation! :thumbsup:
    Ken O. TKO

  18. #18
    I like the fact that this handy guide turned up in my search for zend installation, however I notice that this optimization how-to doesn't include installing zend!!!

    -Turboz

  19. #19
    Originally posted by WFWH
    How can you test to see if Turck MMCache for PHP is running on your server?

    I know i installed it, but i want to make sure its still functioning like its suppose too.
    phpinfo

  20. #20
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    GREAAAAAAAAAT

    GREAAAAAAAAAAAT work IncognitoNet

    thnx alot

  21. #21
    Join Date
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    Originally posted by rasputinj
    phpinfo
    It shows nothing about mmcache so I must didn't install it right, did I?

    I went through the instruction and it was flawless, no problem at all, and I finally check the php.ini file 5 times, still nothing wrong, so I'm wondering why there is no mmcache info at all using php info, any suggestion?

    This program makes use of the Zend Scripting Language Engine:
    Zend Engine v1.3.0, Copyright (c) 1998-2004 Zend Technologies

  22. #22
    Originally posted by hobbestec
    Why are you turning KeepAlive off? In Apache's own documentation they say that KeepAlive can help increase the speed up to 50%.
    KeepAlive OFF to free memory usage but u want to keep it ON and KeepAliveTimeout 5 (a small number anyways)... this way you KeepAlive the conenction until all the images, scripts, css.. whatever are requested ... and free the resource as soon as posible...

  23. #23
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    In my experience turning KeepAlive off has reduced load and only slightly increases loading time so I would recommend it.

    I would also recommend adding this to php.ini:
    output_handler = ob_gzhandler

    Also, tune the /etc/sysctl.conf, I find this useful: http://forums.ev1servers.net/showthr...threadid=48880

  24. #24
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    Can you explain more about what it is the following does (Each entry)

    [mysqld]
    skip-locking
    max_connections=300
    connect_timeout=15
    key_buffer=16M
    join_buffer=1M
    record_buffer=1M
    sort_buffer=2M
    table_cache=1028
    thread_cache_size=286
    max_allowed_packet=5M
    wait_timeout=15
    query_cache_limit=1M
    query_cache_size=32M
    query_cache_type=1
    thread_concurrency=2

    Thanks

    DislexiK
    "You don’t learn to hack, you hack to learn"

  25. #25
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    I get this error...

    Please tell me where I can find your apache src
    [../apache_x.x/src]

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