First... I would suggest calling your customer to ask them why they charged it back and do so in a polite manner, under the assumption that they made an honest mistake. (hopefully that is the case!)
Then... see if you can get them to agree to call their issuing bank to indicate that they made the chargeback in error. Then also have them reply back in writing to you to the same effect and include this in your chargeback rebuttal form.
You will also want to include all documentation you have on the sale on your chargeback rebuttal response.
Now, if this is a cause of fraud, stolen card or a bad apple customer - you may have to take this further and even "go the distance" into cardholder arbitration if you feel your case is strong enough.
Lastly, there are always the small claims courts as a last resort but with respect to handling this within the VISA/MC system - I'd suggest proceeding per the above to start with.
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Does anyone know what the exact FTC Regulations are pertaining to chargebacks? For instance, the CC company give you only a small window of time to respond before they say you are no longer "elligible" to rebutt the chargeback. Is there something that superceeds the CC company's time line? It doesn't seem fair that a customer has up to a year to file a chargeback, yet the merchant is given very little time to repond.
Well what is it that was sold ? Service or tangible item. Did they get exactly what you were offering and they paid for ? Other wise try and fight it but more then likely they will side with the consumer if they come up with something better then I dont recognize the charge, or perhaps they have a kid that snuck the credit card out and decided to spend a few bucks