that's an impossible question to answer, as it depends hugely on what your definition of "data center" is.
The US gov't alone, for example, has well over 2,000 - if you count small <1,000 SF server closets in office buildings as data centers, as they do.
Even if you narrow the focus to facilities that are predominately utilized as data centers (which would probably cut the total number by 80% or more) you run into other problems. Digital Realty has 100+ data centers / 20+ million SF. Many of those, like 350 E Cermak, have multiple customers' data centers in them. Does 350 count as 1 data center, or 20 data centers?
There's really no way to answer the number question.
Is there always a shortage? The fact that there is > $5 billion in data center construction currently underway might answer that question...